Compilation of text parts found on the web about the subject. Just an interesting subject on the “monogamy hormone”…
Though often referred to as the “trust hormone” oxytocin is increasingly being seen as a brain chemical that does a lot more than just bring couples closer together.
New research is suggesting that oxytocin plays a crucial part in enabling us to not just forge and strengthen our social relations, but in helping us to stave off a number of psychological and physiological problems as well. But more conceptually, oxytocin is proving to be a crucial ingredient to what makes us human. Here are ten reasons why oxytocin is simply the most incredible molecule on the planet:
1. It’s easy to get
One of the neat things about oxytocin is that you can get your fix anywhere and at any time. All you need to do is simply hug someone or shake their hand. The simple act of bodily contact will cause your brain to release low levels of oxytocin — both in yourself and in the person you’re touching. It’s a near-instantaneous way to establish trust. And the good news is that the effect lingers afterward. There’s even evidence that simply gazing at someone will do the trick — or even just thinking about them. And you shouldn’t feel limited by the human species; it also helps to hug and play with your pets. And for those who can’t produce enough oxytocin on their own, or who feel they could use a boost, the molecule can be easily synthesized and administered as a drug.
2. A love potion that’s built right in
Often referred to as the “love molecule”, oxytocin is typically associated with helping couples establish a greater sense of intimacy and attachment. Oxytocin, along with dopamine and norepinephrine, are believed to be highly critical in human pair-bonding. But not only that, it also increases the desire for couples to gaze at one another, it creates sexual arousal, and it helps males maintain their erections. When you’re sexually aroused or excited, oxytocin levels increase in your brain significantly — a primary factor forbringing about an orgasm. And during the orgasm itself, the brain is flooded with oxytocin — a possible explanation for why (some) couples like to cuddle after.
3. It helps mom to be mom
But oxytocin isn’t just limited to helping couples come together — it’s an indispensable part of childbirth and mother-child bonding. Oxytocin helps women get through labour by stimulating uterine contractions, which is why it’s sometimes administered (as Pitocin) during labor. It’s been known to promote delivery and speed up contractions. After birth, mothers can establish intimacy and trust with their baby through gentle touches and even a loving gaze. In addition, mothers can pass on oxytocin to their babies through breast milk. And it’s worth noting that fathers can reap the benefits of oxytocin as well; new dads who are given a whiff of oxytocin nasal spray are more likely to encourage their children to explore during playtime and are less likely to be hostile.
4. Reduces social fears
Given its ability to break-down social barriers, induce feelings of optimism, increase self-esteem, and build trust, oxytocin is increasingly being seen as something that can help people overcome their social inhibitions and fears. Studies are showing that it may be effective in treating debilitating shyness, or to help people withsocial anxieties and mood disorders. It’s also thought that oxytocin could help people suffering from post traumatic stress disorder. In addition, given that autism is essentially a social communication disorder, it’s being considered as a way of helping people on the spectrum as well. And lastly, oxytocin, through its trust-building actions, can help heal the wounds of a damaged relationship — another example of how the mind gets its plasticity.
5. Healing and pain relief
Amazingly, oxytocin can also be used to heal wounds (through its anti-inflammatory properties). Studies have also shown that a rise in oxytocin levels can relieve pain — everything from headaches, cramps and overall body aches. Now, that being said, the trick is to get some oxytocin action while you’re in pain — which is not so easy. This is where synthetics can certainly help. Alternately, if you find yourself in physical discomfort, you could always ask your partner for a roll in the hay. So guys, be sure to use this crucial information the next time your significant other declines your advances and tells you she has a headache.
6. A diet aid
Perhaps surprisingly, it can also be used to prevent obesity in some instances. Researchers have observed that oxytocin and oxytocin receptor-deficient mice become obese later in life — and with normal food intake. Scientists believe that the hormone might be responsible for a series of beneficial metabolic effects, both in mice and humans. Moreover, by giving oxytocin-deficient obese mice oxytocin infusions, their weight returned back to normal levels. The mice also showed a reduced glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. This clearly suggests an alternative option for those struggling to keep the weight off.
7. An antidepressant
Oxytocin was first observed to have a connection to depression through its effects on mothers suffering from postpartum syndrome. Researchers found that some new mothers were dealing with depression on account of low levels of oxytocin. In fact, they were able to predict postpartum during the pregnancy if the expectant mother had low levels of oxytocin. Recent studies of blood levels and genetic factors in depressed patients have revealed the potential fortreating people with clinical depression, and even anxiety disorders.
8. Stress relief
Not surprisingly, given its ability to alleviate social anxiety and produce feelings of trust, oxytocin has the peripheral ability to reduce stress — which is no small thing when you consider the toll that stress takes on the body. Oxytocin has been observed to reduce cortisol in the body and lower blood pressure. It’s also been known to improve digestion, which is often disturbed by high stress levels. Interestingly, oxytocin and the oxytocin receptors have been found in the intestinal tract; it improves gut motility and decreases intestinal inflammation.
9. Increases generosity
In what could be seen as either a good or bad thing, oxytocin has been observed to increase generosity in humans. Evolutionary biologists, particularly those who subscribe to the selfish gene theory, have long struggled to understand why people sometimes share or give away things — often at a personal cost. But several lines of research have connected oxytocin to feelings of empathy. In one study that required persons to share money with a stranger, infusions of oxytocin were shown to make some subjects as much as 80% (wow!) more generous than those on a placebo.
10. It’s what makes us human
In other words, all the above. It’s clear that we really wouldn’t be human without it — we would simply lack the ability to be the social, caring species that we are. Now, it should be noted, however, that, while oxytocin increases in-group trust, it produces the opposite feeling for those in the out-group — so it’s not the “perfect drug” some might proclaim it to be. That being said, oxytocin plays a crucial role in forging our ability to spark and maintain relationships, while endowing us with the ability to empathize, trust, and even love one another. Without it, we would be something significantly less than what we are.
Oxytocin has long been deemed “the love hormone,” after its important role in social bonding has been documented. But now, researchers have performed a new experiment that suggests oxytocin stimulates the reward center in the male brain, increasing partner attractiveness and strengthening monogamy.
The researchers, from Bonn University Medical Center in Germany, who published their results in the journal PNAS, are quick to point out that monogamy is not very widespread in mammals.
More the exception than the rule, humans frequently exhibit this trait.
As such, the researchers say science has long tried to uncover the forces that prompt loving couples to practice fidelity.
Dr. René Hurlemann, executive senior physician from the Bonn University Medical Center, notes that “an important role in partner bonding is played by the hormone oxytocin, which is secreted in the brain.”
Familiarity ‘not enough’ to activate reward system
Coupled with oxytocin, only photos of romantic partners – not acquaintances – triggered the reward system for men.
To investigate the effects of this hormone more closely, Dr. Hurlemann and his team, in collaboration with researchers from Ruhr University of Bochum in Germany and the University of Chengdu in China, showed 40 heterosexual men who were in a permanent relationship photos of their female partners.
For comparison, the team also showed the men photos of other women.
All the while, a dose of oxytocin was delivered to the subjects via a nasal spray, though later a placebo was also used.
Additionally, the researchers looked at the participants’ brain activity with functional magnetic resonance tomography.
Lead author Dirk Scheele says that when the subjects “received oxytocin instead of the placebo, their reward system in the brain when viewing the partner was very active, and they perceived them as more attractive than the other women.”
In later tests, the scientists looked at whether oxytocin has a similar effect when the subjects looked at photos of acquaintances and female work colleagues, in order to determine whether familiarity enhances the activation of the reward system in light of oxytocin.
However, Scheele explains that the reward system activation “with the aid of oxytocin had a very selective effect with the pictures of the partners.”
In other words, familiarity is not enough to prompt the bonding effect of oxytocin. They must be loving couples.
Oxytocin’s drug-like effects
Dr. Hurlemann says their findings show how oxytocin’s effects are “very similar to a drug” for couples in a permanent relationship.
When drug users take drugs, they are trying to stimulate the brain’s reward system, which is a similar effect shown in the experiment.
Dr. Hurlemann adds:
“This could also explain why people fall into depression or deep mourning after a separation from their partner: due to the lack of oxytocin secretion, the reward system is understimulated, and is more or less in a withdrawal state.”
Despite this finding, the researchers note that therapy with oxytocin could potentially be counterproductive, as a boost of oxytocin could make the longing for the partner even stronger, potentially increasing suffering.
So, do these findings suggest oxytocin drugs men into monogamy? After all, the researchers point out that the classical view of evolutionary biology suggests men have an advantage in “disseminating their genes” as widely as possible, with as many partners as possible.
However, Dr. Hurlemann also points out another biological aspect of monogamy that provides a benefit:
“When oxytocin strengthens the partner bond, it increases the stability of the persons providing nutrition and thus the chances of survival for the progeny.”
In turn, both the man’s and the woman’s genes live on in the children, thus providing a biological incentive for monogamy.
Potential gender differences
When asked whether he and his team have performed the same experiment in women, Dr. Hurlemann toldMedical News Today that they have not.
However, he did say that in other studies on female subjects, they “quite often found opposite behavioral effects in females, compared with males.”
Dr. Hurlemann continued:
“These gender differences could be related to the fact that oxytocin baseline levels in blood differ between genders, and also the brain oxytocin receptor distribution might differ, but I am not aware of any study documenting this in the living human brain, due to the lack of oxytocin receptor tracers for PET studies.”
Medical News Today recently reported on a study from Northwestern University, which suggested oxytocin strengthens the memory of negative social events and elevates fear and anxiety in the future.
Sex releases a chemical in the brain called Oxytocin….it’s a human bonding agent (like super glue). The same chemical is released during child birth and breast feeding (what bonds infants and mothers). Scientifically people with higher levels of Oxytocin get “attached” faster. You dont want girls getting attached? find someone that has had a million one night stands and doesnt actually want a relationship; CLEARLY convey both of your intentions (yours and hers).
The scientific definition:
A short polypeptide hormone, C43H66N12O12S2, released from the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland, that stimulates the contraction of smooth muscle of the uterus during labor and facilitates ejection of milk from the breast during nursing.
“Oxytocin is a hormone that helps mammals bond…. In humans, oxytocin levels rise during childbirth, breast feeding and sex. Humans with higher oxytocin levels are more likely to trust other people…. I figure if we can hang Oxytocin Meters around people’s necks, we can tell who is involved in healthy relationships and who isn’t.
Oxytocin is one of the two major hormones secreted from the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland, the other being vasopressin, the antidiuretic hormone. The posterior pituitary itself largely comprises endings of nerves whose cell bodies lie in the brain in the hypothalamus. Its hormones are extruded from the nerve endings directly into blood capillaries and thence into the general circulation. Oxytocin is a relatively small peptide hormone, composed of only 9 amino acids. It is synthesized in nerve cells in the hypothalamus in the form of a larger, precursor molecule, which is transported down the nerve fibres through the pituitary stalk to the posterior lobe. The active hormone is cleaved from the precursor during this process.